Annual. Completes it's life cycle in one season. A hardy annual will have seed that survives the winter.
Biennial. Completes it's life cycle two seasons.
Perennial. Will die back to the ground each winter. Tender perennials depending on what it is may survive if overwintered indoors ie Colocasia, Esclepias
Herbaceous. Pants with soft stems/no persistent woody stems that die back to the ground each autumn/winter ie Dahlias, Begonias etc.
Shrub. Small to medium sized woody plant with multiple stems